Issue题库101--244题的中文翻译版

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 以下是Issue题库101-244题的中文翻译新版  ,(1-100已发表)借鉴了pleased SeizeMoon等对题目的翻译 ,更正了其中一些不确切和模糊的翻译  ,我的体会是翻译与填空的解题原则一样  ,论题中有的词有多个意思  ,应关注其上下文两句话的对比关系 ,而且只有这样 ,作文才能扣题 。

  一直希望回馈寄托联盟其他网友的工作  ,因为做过一段时间的翻译  ,故翻译了这些题






目 ,并希望与我探讨  。

  101 "Governments should provide funding for artists so that the arts can fl ourish and be available to all people."

  101.政府应资助艺术家  ,促进艺术繁荣  ,以便人们都能接触到艺术 。

  102 "For better or worse, education is a process that involves revising the ideas, beliefs, and values people held in the past."

  102.不论好坏  ,教育改变了人们以前的想法、信念和价值观  。

  103 "The study of history has value only to the extent that it is relevant to our daily lives."

  103.研究历史的价值只体现在这种研究和我们的日常生活相关时  。

  104 "It is primarily through formal education that a culture tries to perpe

  tuate the ideas it favors and discredit the ideas it fears."

  104.一种文化要想保留它认为好的思想  ,消除它认为不好的思想 ,主要是通过正规的教育  。

  105 "The true strength of a country is best demonstrated by the willingness of its government to tolerate challenges from it's own citizens."

  105.当政府愿意接受来自其公民的质疑时  ,才表明这个国家真正的强大 。

  106 "All students should be required to take at least one course in ethics, even if taking the course means a decreased emphasis on academic subjects."

  106.学生们应该被要求至少学习一种道德规范课程  ,即使这样会影响学术课程的学习  。

  107 "Instant communication systems encourage people to form hasty opinions and give quick replies rather than take the time to develop thoughtful, well-reasoned points of view."

  107.实时通信系统促使人们匆忙决定并快速作出回应  ,而不是花时间得出一个仔细思考过、合情合理的观点 。

  108 "In many countries it is now possible to turn on the television and vie w government at work. Watching these proceedings can help people understand the issues that affect their lives. The more kinds of government proceedings-- trials, debates, meetings, etc -- that are televised, the more society will benefit."

  108.在很多国家 ,从电视上看到政府人员办公的场景已是可能  。观看这些过程有助于人们理解影响他们生活的问题  。政府办公如审判、辩论、会议等的各个场景  ,转播得越多  ,对社会越有益  。

  109 "The purpose of many advertisements is to make consumers want to buy a product so that they will 'be like' the person in the ad. This practice is effective because it not only sells products but also helps people feel better about themselves."

  109.很多广告的目的是要让消费者因为拥有产品后“像”广告中的人物而购买某种产品  ,这样的广告是有效的  ,因为这样既销售了产品  ,又让人们自我感觉良好  。

  110 "When we concern ourselves with the study of history, we become storyte llers. Because we can never know the past directly but must construct it by interpreting evidence, exploring history is more of a creative enterprise than it is an objective pursuit. All historians are storytellers."

  110.当我们研究历史时 ,我们变成了讲故事的人  。因为我们无从直接知道过去发生的事情  ,必须通过一些证据来构建  ,所以历史研究是一个有创造成分的领域  ,而并非一个客观的学科  。所有的历史学家都是讲故事的人(storyteller) 。

  111 "The worldwide distribution of television programs and advertisements i s seriously diminishing the differences among cultures."

  111.全球性电视节目和广告极大地减少了各种文化之间的差异  。

  112 "Some educational systems emphasize the development of students' capacity for reasoning and logical thinking, but students would benefit more from an education that also taught them to explore their own emotions."

  112.一些教育机构强调培养学生的推理和逻辑思考能力  ,但是如果也教会学生认知自我的情感  ,学生们将受益更多 。

  113 "It is primarily through our identification with social groups that we define ourselves."

  113.定位自己  ,主要是通过定位自己所处的社会团体 。

  114 "Humanity has made little real progress over the past century or so. Te chnological innovations have taken place, but the overall condition of humanity is no better. War, violence, and poverty are still with us. Technology cannot change the condition of humanity."

  114.人道主义在上个世纪并没有真正的发展  。科技发展  ,但是人道主义的整体面貌并没有得到改善 。战争、暴力、贫穷一直困扰着我们  。科技不能改变人道主义状况  。

  115 "It is through the use of logic and of precise, careful measurement tha t we become aware of our progress. Without such tools, we have no reference points to indicate how far we have advanced or retreated."

  115.通过逻辑思维和精确的测量手段才能获知我们的进步  。没有这些工具  ,就没有参考点来标明我们进步了多少 ,退步了多少  。

  116 "With the growth of global networks in such areas as economics and comm unication, there is no doubt that every aspect of society -- including education, politics, the arts, and the sciences -- will benefit greatly from international influences."

  116.随着经济和通讯等领域的全球化 ,毫无疑问  ,社会的方方面面 ,包括教育、政治、艺术和科学  ,都将从这种国际化影响中获益非浅  。

  117 "The depth of knowledge to be gained from books is richer and broader t han what can be learned from direct experience."

  117.从书本中所学的知识要比从直接的实践中学到的更丰富、更广博  。

  118 "In any field of endeavor -- the sciences, the humanities, the social s ciences, industry, etc. -- it is not the attainment of a goal that matters, but rather the ideas and discoveries that are encountered on the way to the goal."

  118.在任何领域如科学、人文、社会科学、工业等 ,我们的收获在于达成目标的道路上的经验和发现  ,而不是获取目标本身  。

  119 "When research priorities are being set for science, education, or any other area, the most important question to consider is: How many people's lives will be improved if the results are successful?"

  119.为科学、教育或其他任何领域设定研究优先级时 ,最需要考虑的问题是:如果研究成功  ,多少人将从中受益  ?

  120 "So much is new and complex today that looking back for an understandin g of the past provides little guidance for living in the present."

  120.现代生活是崭新、复杂的  ,认知过去对现在没有指导价值  。

  121 "At various times in the geological past, many species have become exti nct as a result of natural, rather than human, processes. Thus, there is no justification for society to make extraordinary efforts, especially at a great cost in money and jobs, to save endangered species."

  121.在过去不同的地质时期  ,很多物种的灭绝都是自然因素造成 ,而并非人类行为  。所以  ,社会没有理由花费很大的人力物力去拯救濒临灭绝的物种  。

  122 "We owe almost all our knowledge not to people who have agreed, but to people who have disagreed."

  122.几乎所有的知识都归功于和我们意见不同的人 ,而并非和我们意见一致的人  。

  123 "It is possible to identify a person's politics within a very short tim e of meeting him or her. Everything about people -- their clothes, their friends, the way they talk, what they eat -- reflects their political beliefs."

  123.和一个人相处很短的时间就有可能知道他的政治立场 。所有与他们相关的如衣服、朋友、谈话的方式、所吃的食物都反映出他们的政治信仰  。

  124 "Instant foods, instant communication, faster transportation-all of the se recent developments are designed to save time. Ironically, though, instead of making more leisure time available, these developments have contributed to a pace of human affairs that is more rushed and more frantic than ever before."

  124.快餐、实时通讯、高速运输 ,所有这些最新发展都是为了节省人们的时间  。但具有讽刺意味的是 ,这些进步非但没有给人们带来更多的闲暇时间  ,反而让人们的生活节奏越来越忙乱  。

  125 "The past is no predictor of the future."

  125.过去并不能预示将来 。

  126 "Society's external rewards are no measure of true success. True succes s can be measured only in relation to the goals one sets for oneself."

  126.社会所给予的外部奖励不是成功的真正衡量标准 。真正的成功只能通过自己所设立的目标来衡量  。

  127 "Facts are stubborn things. They cannot be altered by our wishes, our i nclinations, or the dictates of our passions."

  127.事实是不容改变的  。它不会由于我们的希望、倾向或个人意志而改变  。

  128 "It is often asserted that the purpose of education is to free the mind and the spirit. In reality, however, formal education tends to restrain our minds and spirits rather than set them free."

  128.人们经常说教育的目的是释放人们的心灵  。但实际上  ,正规的教育却倾向于束缚而非释放了人们的心灵  。

  129 "Technology is a necessary but not always a positive force in modern li fe."

  129.科技对现代生活是必须的  ,但并非任何时候都能起到积极的作用  。

  130 "How children are socialized today determines the destiny of society. U nfortunately, we have not yet learned how to raise children who can help bring about a better society."

  130.孩子融入社会的能力决定了社会的命运  。遗憾的是  ,我们还不知道怎样培养孩子使他们对社会有益  。

  131 "The arts (painting, music, literature, etc.) reveal the otherwise hidd en ideas and impulses of a society."

  131.艺术(绘画、音乐、文学等)展现了那些隐藏的观点和社会的脉动  。

  132 "The university community consists of three different worlds -- the sci ences, the humanities, and the social sciences. Because each world operates on its own assumptions and has its own special habits of thinking, rarely is there meaningful interaction among the sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences."

  132.大学包含三种不同的领域:科学、人文和社会科学 。因为每种领域都有自己的设定和特殊的思维习惯 ,所以三者之间很少存在有意义的互动  。

  133 "The problems of modern society have led many people to complain: 'We l ive in terrible times.' Yet, given the choice, no one today would prefer to live in any other time."

  133.现代社会中的问题使很多人抱怨:“我们生活在一个糟糕的年代 。”但如果让他们来选择 ,没有人会愿意过以往的生活 。

  134 "Students should be encouraged to realize that mental agility and rheto rical skill must be accompanied by sincerity and the true conviction of their own beliefs."

  134.必须鼓励学生们意识到:机智和修辞技巧必须以真诚和真正的信仰为基础  。

  135 "While most of the environmental problems we face result from the use o f technology, society must depend upon technology to find solutions to these problems."

  135.虽然我们面临的大多数环境问题都来源于科技的应用 ,我们应该依靠科技本身来寻找这些问题的解决方案  。

  136 "The absence of choice is a circumstance that is very, very rare."

  136.没有选择的情形非常少见 。

  137 "What we call progress is a matter of exchanging one problem for another."

  137.我们所谓的进步只不过是把一个问题转化成了另一个问题  。

  138 "Only through mistakes can there be discovery or progress."

  138.不犯错误就不会有发现和进步  。

  139 "Every new generation needs to redefine 'right' and 'wrong' in its own terms and according to the conditions of its own time."

  139.每一代人都需要根据自己所处的时代情形重新定义“对”与“错”的概念  。

  140 "What society has thought to be its greatest social, political, and ind ividual achievements have often resulted in the greatest discontent."

  140.社会认为的社会成就、政治成就和个人成就往往招致极大的不满  。

  141 "Most people recognize the benefits of individuality, but the fact is t hat personal economic success requires conformity."

  141.大多数人只意识到个性化的益处  ,但实际上个人的经济成功需要一致性 。

  142 "The well-being of a society is enhanced when many of its people questi on authority."

  142.当许多公民质疑的时候  ,社会才能更富强  。

  143 "Artists should pay little attention to their critics. *Criticism tends to undermine and constrain the artist's creativity." *those who evaluate w orks of art, such as novels, films, music, paintings, etc.

  143.艺术家应该对给予他们的批评毫不理会 。批评家总是削弱和限制艺术家的创造力 。*评价艺术作品  ,例如小说、电影、音乐、绘画等的人 。

  144 "It is the artist, not the critic,* who gives society something of last ing value." *a person who evaluates works of art, such as novels, films, mu sic, paintings, etc.

  144.是艺术家而不是批评家  ,带给社会一些具有持久价值的东西  。

  *批评家指经常评价艺术作品  ,例如小说、电影、音乐、绘画等的人  。

  145 "A crucial test of character is whether one is able to adapt to changin g social conventions without sacrificing one's principles."

  145.性格测试最关键的一点就是看一个人能否在不牺牲个人原则的基础上适应变化的社会习俗  。

  146 "People who are the most deeply committed to an idea or policy are the most critical of it."

  146.对某思想或策略最执着的人往往对其最挑剔 。

  147 "Tradition and modernization are incompatible. One must choose between them."

  147.传统和现代不相容  。人们必须在二者之间做出选择 。

  148 "Many people admire idealism, but it usually leads to disappointment or trouble."

  148.许多人崇尚理想主义  ,但它往往带来失望或烦恼  。

  149 "The most practical and effective way to protect wilderness areas is to attract more tourists to these areas through environmentally sensitive proj ects."

  149.保护野生环境最实际有效的方法就是通过环保项目吸引更多的观光客到那些地方去  。

  150 "Because of television and worldwide computer connections, people can n ow become familiar with a great many places that they have never visited. As a result, tourism will soon become obsolete."

  150.通过电视和世界联网的计算机  ,人们得以了解很多他们没有去过的地方 。所以  ,旅游业会越来越不景气  。

  151 "High-speed electronic communications media, such as electronic mail an d television, tend to prevent meaningful and thoughtful communication."

  151.高速的电子通讯媒介 ,如电子邮件和电视  ,阻止了人们有思想、有意义的交流 。

  152 "The only responsibility of corporate executives, provided they stay wi thin the law, is to make as much money as possible for their companies."

  152.对于公司的执行官  ,他们的任务就是在法律允许的范围内  ,为公司赚取尽可能多的金钱  。

  153 "Students should bring a certain skepticism to whatever they study. The y should question what they are taught instead of accepting it passively."

  153.学生们应该带着一定的怀疑态度对待所学的任何东西  。他们应该质疑老师教给他们的东西 ,而不是被动地接受  。

  154 "Both parents and communities must be involved in the local schools. Ed ucation is too important to leave solely to a group of professional educators."

  154.家长和社会都应该参与到当地的学校中来  。教育太重要了 ,不能只靠专业教育者  。

  155 "Contemporary society offers so many ways of learning that reading book s is no longer very important."

  155.当代社会提供了很多学习的途径 ,读书这种学习方式已经不是很重要了  。

  156 "Choice is an illusion. In reality, our lives are controlled by the soc iety in which we live."

  156.选择只是幻想  。实际上  ,每个人的生活都是由所在的社会决定的  。

  157 "There is no such thing as purely objective observation. All observatio n is subjective; it is always guided by the observer's expectations or desires."

  157.没有哪件事情是完全客观观察的结果  。所有的观察都是主观的  ,通常由观察者的期望和意愿所导引  。

  158 The arts (music, dance, visual arts, etc.) are vitally important to stu dents' education and should therefore receive as much emphasis as mathematics, science, reading and other mainstream subjects."

  158.艺术(音乐、舞蹈、视觉艺术等)对学生的教育非常重要的  ,因此它们应该得到和数学、科学、阅读以及其他主流课程一样的重视  。

  159 "The human mind will always be superior to machines because machines ar e only tools of human minds."

  159.人类思维总是胜过机器 ,因为机器只不过是人类思维的工具而已 。

  160 "The most essential quality of an effective leader is the ability to re main consistently committed to particular principles and objectives. Any leader who is quickly and easily influenced by shifts in popular opinion will accomplish little."

  160.有效力的最本质的品质就是对特定原则和目标的坚持  。任何  ,如果他很容易受到流行观点的影响  ,那他就一事无成  。

  161 "In this age of intensive media coverage, it is no longer possible for a society to regard any woman or man as a hero. The reputation of anyone who is subjected to media scrutiny will eventually be diminished."

  161.在媒体铺天盖地的年代 ,不可能树立英雄  。任何人在媒体的“审视”下都会名声扫地 。

  162 "One often hears about the need for individuals to take responsibility for their own lives. However, the conditions in which people find themselves have been largely established long before people become aware of them. Thus, the concept of personal responsibility is much more complicated and unrealistic than is often assumed."

  162.我们经常听到个人需要为自己的生活负责任  。但是在人们认识到自己所处的情形之前  ,这些情形很大程度上已确定  。所以个人责任要比通常认为的要复杂和不切实际的得多  。

  163 "Most people live, whether physically or morally, in a very restricted circle. They make use of a very limited portion of the resources available to them until they face a great problem or crisis."

  163.大多数人  ,不管是肉体上还是精神上 ,都局限于有限的范围内 。直到他们遇到重大问题或危机的时候  ,才会发现自己只不过利用了可用资源很有限的一部分而已  。

  164 "Sometimes imagination is a more valuable asset than experience. People who lack experience are free to imagine what is possible and thus can appro ach a task without constraints of established habits and attitudes."

  164.想象力有时比经验更有价值 。缺乏实际经验的人对可能性有更自由的想象空间 ,所以能够不受固有的习惯和思维的限制来完成任务  。

  165 "In any given field, the leading voices come from people who are motiva ted not by conviction but by the desire to present opinions and ideas that differ from those held by the majority."

  165.在任何领域 ,最主要的声音来自于这些人 ,他们并不是由信念驱动 ,而是由希望表达和大多数人相异的观点和想法的意愿所驱动  。

  166 "Over the past century, the most significant contribution of technology has been to make people's lives more comfortable."

  166.上个世纪  ,科技的贡献在于使人们的生活更舒适  。

  167 "It is impossible for an effective political leader to tell the truth a ll the time. Complete honesty is not a useful virtue for a politician."

  167.有效力的政治在任何时候都告诉真相是不可能的  。对于政治家来说  ,太坦白不是美德 。

  168 "Critical judgment of work in any given field has little value unless i t comes from someone who is an expert in that field."

  168.在任何领域 ,只有该领域专家做出的评判才是有价值的  。

  169 "Those who treat politics and morality as though they were separate rea lms fail to understand either the one or the other."

  169.认为政治和道德是两码事的人既不懂政治又不懂道德 。

  170 "The surest indicator of a great nation is not the achievements of its rulers, artists, or scientists, but the general welfare of all its people."

  170.伟大国家最可靠的标志不是其统治者、艺术家或者科学家的成就 ,而是全体人民的福利  。

  171 "People who pursue their own intellectual interests for purely personal reasons are more likely to benefit the rest of the world than are people wh o try to act for the public good."

  171.那些纯粹出于个人原因追求自己学术兴趣的人  ,相比出于公众利益努力的人  ,更有可能造福他人  。

  172 "Important truths begin as outrageous, or at least uncomfortable, attac ks upon the accepted wisdom of the time."

  172.真正的真理开始都是可憎的  ,或至少是令人不舒服的 ,和那个时代业已形成的至理名言相抵触  。

  173 "Originality does not mean thinking something that was never thought be fore; it means putting old ideas together in new ways."

  173.创造性不是指想人们没有想过的东西;而是以新方式将旧观点组织在一起 。

  174 "Laws should not be rigid or fixed. Instead, they should be flexible en ough to take account of various circumstances, times, and places."

  174.法律不应该太僵化、太固定 。他们应该是灵活的 ,考虑到各种实际情况、时间和地点  。

  175 "It is always an individual who is the impetus for innovation; the deta ils may be worked out by a team, but true innovation results from the enterprise and unique perception of an individual."

  175.总是某个个人推动了革新;可能由团队完成细节 ,但是真正的革新来自于个人的进取心与不寻常的洞察力 。

  176 "The function of science is to reassure; the purpose of art is to upset . Therein lies the value of each."

  176.科学的目的是使人们安心 ,艺术的目的是使人们不安  。这就是它们各自的价值 。

  177 "The study of an academic discipline alters the way we perceive the wor ld. After studying the discipline, we see the same world as before, but with different eyes."

  177.对学术的研究改变了我们感知世界的方式 。探究了这些领域之后 ,看同样的世界  ,却是不同的视角  。

  178 "It is possible to pass laws that control or place limits on people's b ehavior, but legislation cannot reform human nature. Laws cannot change what is in people's hearts and minds."

  178.控制、限制人们行为的法律可能建立 ,但是立法不能改变人们的本性 ,法律无法改变人们的所思所想  。

  179 "What most human beings really want to attain is not knowledge, but cer tainty. Gaining real knowledge requires taking risks and keeping the mind open -- but most people prefer to be reassured rather than to learn the complex and often unsettling truth about anything."

  179.人类真正希望获取的不是知识  ,而是确定性 。获取真正的知识需要冒险  ,并且要有开放的心灵  ,但是大多数人更喜欢确定感 ,而不是去了解事物复杂的  ,甚至是使人不安的真相 。

  180 "Many problems of modern society cannot be solved by laws and the legal system because moral behavior cannot be legislated."

  180.现代社会的许多问题是法律和司法系统不能解决的  ,因为道德行为无法立法  。

  181 "The way students and scholars interpret the materials they work with i n their academic fields is more a matter of personality than of training. Different interpretations come about when people with different personalities look at exactly the same objects, facts, data, or events and see different things."

  181.研究者和学者们诠释他们研究领域的资料时 ,更多的是一种个人化的行为 ,而不是拥有客观的标准  。当个性不同的人看待完全相同的物体、事实、数据或者事件时  ,会给出不同的诠释 ,看到不同的东西  。

  182 "It is dangerous to trust only intelligence."

  182.只相信智力是危险的  。(Intelligence:The faculty of thought and reason.故智力-理性相对于直觉-感性  ,我的理解)

  183 "As we acquire more knowledge, things do not become more comprehensible , but more complex and more mysterious."

  183.随着我们获取的知识越来越多  ,事情不是变得更好理解  ,而是变得更复杂更神秘  。184 "It is a grave mistake to theorize before one has data."

  184.在没有证据之前就得出理论  ,是重大错误 。

  185 "Scandals -- whether in politics, academia, or other areas -- can be us eful. They focus our attention on problems in ways that no speaker or reformer ever could."

  185.丑闻  ,不管是政治、学术还是其他领域  ,都是有用的  。它们能吸引人们的注意力  ,而使我们聚焦于问题 ,以一种演讲者和改革家都做不到的方式  。

  186 "Practicality is now our great idol, which all powers and talents must serve. Anything that is not obviously practical has little value in today's world."

  186.现在 ,实用性是我们的追求 ,所有的力量和聪明才智都应为其努力 。任何没有明显实用性的东西在当今世界都是没有价值的  。

  187 "It is easy to welcome innovation and accept new ideas. What most peopl e find difficult, however, is accepting the way these new ideas are put into practice."

  187.人们很容易欢迎革新和接受新思想  。但是  ,人们发现最困难的是接受把新思想应用到实践中来的方式  。

  188 "Success, whether academic or professional, involves an ability to surv ive in a new environment and, eventually, to change it."

  188.成功 ,不管是学术上还是专业上的  ,都包括适应新环境并最终改变它的能力  。

  189 "If people disregard the great works of the past, it is because these w orks no longer answer the needs of the present."

  189.如果人们忽视了过去的伟大成就  ,那是因为这些成就已不能再回应目前的需要  。

  190 "As long as people in a society are hungry or out of work or lack the b asic skills needed to survive, the use of public resources to support the arts is inappropriate -- and, perhaps, even cruel -- when one considers all the potential uses of such money."

  190.当人们挨饿、失业或者缺少维持生存的基本技能时  ,动用公众资源来支持艺术就不合适了  ,也许 ,考虑到这些金钱的所有可能用途时  ,就更不人道了 。

  191 "Education should be equally devoted to enriching the personal lives of students and to training students to be productive workers."

  191.教育应该把这两件事看得同等重要-丰富学生的个人生活  ,把学生培养成生产者  。

  192 "Success in any realm of life comes more often from taking chances or r isks than from careful and cautious planning."

  192.生活各个方面的成功更多是来自机遇或者冒险  ,而不是仔细和谨慎的规划  。

  193 "It is not the headline-making political events but the seldom-reported social tranformations that have the most lasting significance."

  193.更有持久影响的不是头版头条的政治事件  ,而是鲜有报道的社会变革  。

  194 "The best preparation for life or a career is not learning to be compet itive, but learning to be cooperative."

  194.为生活和工作做的准备 ,不是学会竞争 ,而是学会合作  。  。

  195 "The goal of politics should not be the pursuit of an ideal, but rather the search for common ground and reasonable consensus."

  195.政治的目标不应是追求一个理想状态  ,而是寻找共同点和合情合理的共识  。

  196 "Technology creates more problems than it solves, and may threaten or d amage the quality of life."

  196.科技产生的问题多于所解决的  ,可能威胁或降低人们的生活质量  。

  197 "The material progress and well-being of one country are necessarily co nnected to the material progress and well-being of all other countries."

  197.一个国家的生活质量提高和社会的安定是和其他所有国家的生活质量提高和社会安定密不可分的  。

  198 "Instead of encouraging conformity, society should show greater appreci ation of individual differences."

  198.社会应该赞赏个性差异  ,而不是鼓励一致统一  。

  199 "Truly innovative ideas do not arise from groups of people, but from in dividuals. When groups try to be creative, the members force each other to compromise and, as a result, creative ideas tend to be weakened and made more conventional. Most original ideas arise from individuals working alone."

  199.真正创新的思想不是来自群体 ,而是来自个人  。当一个群体试图创新时  ,群体中的成员使得彼此相互妥协  ,最终削弱集体的创造性  ,趋向遵循传统  。大部分创造性思想来自于个人的独立工作 。

  200 "The most elusive knowledge is self-knowledge, and it is usually acquir ed through solitude, rather than through interaction with others."

  200.最难的莫过于认知自我  ,通常只能通过独处  ,而非与他人交往来了解自己  。

  201 "The purpose of education should be to provide students with a value sy stem, a standard, a set of ideas -- not to prepare them for a specific job."

  201.教育的目的应是给学生提供一个价值系统 ,标准以及一系列理念  ,而不是使他们为某一特定工作做好准备  。

  202 "Unlike great thinkers and great artists, the most effective political leaders must often yield to public opinion and abandon principle for the sake of compromise."

  202.和伟大的思想家、艺术家不同  ,最有效力的政治必须经常向公众舆论让步 ,有时为了折衷要放弃原则  。

  203 "The best way to understand the character of a society is to examine th e character of the men and women that the society chooses as its heroes or its heroines."

  203.了解社会特征的方式就是研究那个社会所认为的英雄人物的特征 。

  204 "We learn through direct experience; to accept a theory without experie ncing it is to learn nothing at all."

  204.我们通过直接经验学习;没有通过实践而接受一个理论是学不到任何东西的 。

  205 "As societies all over the world have more and more access to new infor mation, the effects on life-long learning can only be positive."

  205.全世界的人有越来越多的途径来获取新信息  ,这对终身学习只会有积极的推动作用  。

  206 "People are too quick to take action; instead they should stop to think of the possible consequences of what they might do."

  206.人们行动太快了;他们应该停下来想一想行动的可能后果  。

  207 "Rituals and ceremonies help define a culture. Without them, societies or groups of people have a diminished sense of who they are."

  207.典礼和仪式有助于确立一种文化  ,否则人们的社会或群体的角色归属感削弱  。

  208 "The way people look, dress, and act reveals their attitudes and intere sts. You can tell much about a society's ideas and values by observing the appearance and behavior of its people."

  208.人们的眼神、衣着和行动表现出他们的态度和兴趣  。你可以通过观察人们的外表和行为来获知许多这个社会的思想和价值观  。

  209 "Progress is best made through discussion among people who have contras ting points of view."

  209.在持不同意见的人们中展开讨论是进步的方式 。

  210 "Most people choose a career on the basis of such pragmatic considerati ons as the needs of the economy, the relative ease of finding a job, and the salary they can expect to make. Hardly anyone is free to choose a career based on his or her natural talents or interest in a particular kind of work."

  210.大多数人找工作是基于实用性的考虑:经济需求、较易找到工作  ,希望拿到的薪水  。很少有人自由地根据自己对某一份工作的才能和兴趣出发去选择职业  。

  211 "Any decision-whether made by government, by a corporation, or by an in dividual person-must take into account future conditions more than present conditions."

  211.一个决策  ,不管政府、企业抑或个人做出的  ,都应该考虑将来的情形多于目前的情形 。

  212 "If a goal is worthy, then any means taken to attain it is justifiable. "

  212.如果一个目标是值得的  ,那么追求目标的任何手段都是正当的  。

  213 "Too much emphasis has been placed on the need for students to challeng e the assertions of others. In fact, the ability to compromise and work with others -- that is, the ability to achieve social harmony -- should be a major goal in every school."

  213.学校太强调教学生怎么质疑他人的主张  。实际上  ,培养折衷和与他人合作的能力  ,也就是促进社会和谐的能力应该被作为每个学校的主要目标  。

  214 "Society should identify those children who have special talents and ab ilities and begin training them at an early age so that they can eventually excel in their areas of ability. Otherwise, these talents are likely to remain undeveloped."

  214.社会应该找出那些具有特殊天才和能力的孩子 ,并在小时候就训练他们  ,这样他们最终能在此领域表现出众  ,否则这些潜能可能得不到发展  。

  215 "The bombardment of visual images in contemporary society has the effec t of making people less able to focus clearly and extensively on a single issue over a long period of time."

  215.当今社会视觉影像的爆炸使得人们不能长时间明确且全面地关注某一问题  。

  216 "Most important discoveries or creations are accidental: it is usually while seeking the answer to one question that we come across the answer to another."

  216.大多数重大发现和发明都是偶然的:通常情况下人们为了某个问题寻找答案 ,却在这一过程中找到了另一问题的答案  。

  217 "In order to produce successful original work, scholars and scientists must first study the successful work of others to learn what contributions remain to be made."

  217.为了取得成功的原创业绩  ,学者和科学家必须首先研究那些别人的成功业绩 ,然后确定还有那些领域存在研究价值  。

  218 "In order for any work of art -- whether film, literature, sculpture, or a song -- to have merit, it must be understandable to most people." 218.艺术作品要有价值  ,不管是电影、文学还是歌曲  ,都必须让大多数人能够理解  。

  219 "Now that computer technology has made possible the rapid accessing of large amounts of factual information, people are less likely than ever to think deeply or originally. They feel unable to compete with -- much less contribute to -- the quantity of information that is now available electronically."

  219.现在计算机技术已经使快速地访问大量的信息成为可能 ,人们已经不像以前那样进行深入和有创造力地思考了  。他们感觉无法  ,也没有意义去和现在可以电子化获取的信息量相比 。

  220 "The increase in knowledge is forcing people to specialize. As a result , the distance between fields of specialization has become so vast that specialists in different areas are rarely able to influence each other."

  220.知识增长迫使人们将其专业化 。结果专业化领域间的跨度非常大 ,以至不同领域的专家彼此之间很少能够相互影响 。

  221 "The chief benefit of the study of history is to break down the illusio n that people in one period of time are significantly different from people who lived at any other time in history."

  221.研究历史最明显的好处就是消除了这样的错觉  ,某个时代的人们与历另一个时代的人们有重大的差别  。

  222 "Learning for learning's sake is an outdated concept. Today, education must serve an ulterior purpose and be directed toward clear goals."

  222.为了学习而学习已经是过时的理念  。现在的教育必须是面向未来并且有明确的目标  。

  223 "Education is primarily a personal matter; it has little to do with sch ool or college."

  223.教育主要是个人的事情 ,与学校或者大学基本没有关系  。

  224 "Censorship is rarely, if ever, justified."

  224.审查制度很少被证明是正当的 。

  225 "People often look for similarities, even between very different things , and even when it is unhelpful or harmful to do so. Instead, a thing should be considered on its own terms; we should avoid the tendency to compare it to something else."

  225.人们经常寻找相似处  ,不管两个事物有多么不同  ,即便这样做没有意义或是有害的  。我们应该就事论事  ,避免把它拿去和其他事物比较  。

  226 "People are mistaken when they assume that the problems they confront a re more complex and challenging than the problems faced by their predecessors. This illusion is eventually dispelled with increased knowledge and experience."

  226.人们错误地认为他们碰到的问题要比他们前辈碰到的问题更复杂、更具挑战性  。这个错觉最终会随着知识和经验的积累消除 。

  227 "To remain vigorous, any academic field needs to be led by truly indepe ndent thinkers who are willing to ignore established boundaries and challenge long-standing assumptions."

  227.为了保持活力  ,任何学术领域都需要由真正独立的思想者领导 ,这些人无视传统的束缚 ,敢于挑战根深蒂固的思想 。

  228 "The best way to teach -- whether as an educator, employer, or parent - - is to praise positive actions and ignore negative ones."

  228.教育方式  ,不管是作为一个教育工作者、雇主还是父母  ,都是表扬积极的行为  ,忽略负面的行为 。

  229 "The best way to learn a new subject or skill is to study small segment s or details in great depth rather than to start by trying to develop a sense of the whole."

  229.学习新学科或技能的方式是深入研究小片断或细节  ,而不是一开始就试图获取整体的认识  。

  230 "College students -- and people in general -- prefer to follow directio ns rather than make their own decisions. Therefore, colleges should eliminate as many choices as possible in order to offer students clear direction."

  230.大学生-还有普通人-都更喜欢跟从指导 ,而不是做出自己的决定  。因此  ,大学应该尽可能让学生少做选择 ,给学生提供明确的方向 。

  231 " 'Moderation in all things' is ill-considered advice. Rather, one shou ld say, 'Moderation in most things,' since many areas of human concern require or at least profit from intense focus."

  231.“对所有事情适度”是不正确的建议  。而应是“对大多数事情要适度  。”因为人们从事的许多领域需要或者至少得益于执着  。(这里的适度类似中庸)

  232 "The purpose of education should be to create an academic environment t hat is separate from the outside world. This kind of environment is ideal because it allows students to focus on important ideas without being held back by practical concerns."

  232.教育的目的应该是建立一个与世隔离的学术环境  。这种环境是很理想的  ,因为这样学生们就可以不被日常事务牵扯精力而专注地研究重要问题  。

  233 "Although innovations such as video, computers, and the Internet seem t o offer schools improved methods for instructing students, these technologies all too often distract from real learning."

  233.尽管技术创新  ,如录像机、计算机以及因特网看似改善了学校的教学方式  ,但这些技术时常分散真实的学习 。

  234."Most people prefer restrictions and regulations to absolute freedom of choice, although they would probably deny such a preference."

  234.大多数人更倾向于限制与规则  ,而不是绝对的自由  ,虽然他们可能会否认这一点 。

  235."Most people are taught that loyalty is a virtue. But loyalty—whether to one's friends, to one's school or place of employment, or to any institution—is all too often a destructive rather than a positive force."

  235.大多数人被教育说忠诚是一种美德  。但是  ,忠诚-无论对于朋友、学校、受雇公司或任何机构来说 ,经常都是一种有害而非积极的力量  。

  236."Encouraging young people to believe that they can accomplish great things if they try hard enough is both misleading and potentially harmful."

  236.鼓励年轻人相信如果他们足够努力就能成就伟大的事业  ,不仅是误导而且可能是有害的 。

  237."Computers and video technology can make facsimiles of original works such as paintings and historical documents available to everyone. The great advantage of this new technology is that it will enable anyone—not just scholars—to conduct in-depth research without having access to the original works."

  237.计算机以及视频技术可以制作原件的复制品  ,使得普通人都能接触到绘画或历史文件  ,此新技术的巨大优点在于它使得每一个人-而不只是学者-能够不接触原件而进行深入的研究  。

  238."Conformity almost always leads to a deadening of individual creativity and energy."

  238.一致性几乎总是压抑个性化创造和活力  。

  239."Much of the information that people assume is 'factual' actually turns out to be inaccurate. Thus, any piece of information referred to as a 'fact'should be mistrusted since it may well be proven false in the future."

  239.许多人们认为“真实”的信息结果是不准确的  。因此 ,对任何被称为“事实”的信息都应该此怀疑态度  ,因为很有可能它将来被证实是虚假的 。

  240."Although it is easy to respond positively to the work of another person or group, it is far more worthwhile to give negative feedback."

  240.虽然很容易对他人和团体的工作给出肯定的反馈  ,但是给出否定的反馈更有价值  。

  241."An individual's greatness cannot be judged objectively by his or her contemporaries; the most objective evaluators of a person's greatness are people who belong to a later time."

  241.个体的伟大成就不能由同时代的人来评判;对于成就最客观的评价者是后来人  。

  242. "Societies should try to save every plant and animal species, regardless of the expense to humans in effort, time, and financial well-being."

  242.社会应尽力挽救每一动植物物种  ,不管花费多少人力、时间和财力 。

  243."The true value of a civilization is reflected in its artistic creations rather than in its scientific accomplishments."

  243.文明真正的价值反映在它的艺术创作上 ,而不是科学成就上  。

  244 "Most societies do not take their greatest thinkers seriously, even when they claim to admire them."

  244.大多数社会并不重视伟大的思想家 ,即使社会宣称景仰这些思想家 。