"In our time, specialists of all kinds are highly overrated. We need more generalists -- people who can provide broad perspectives."
This claim raises several related questions: What does it mean to be a generalist or a specialist, and what value do they have for society? Does society actually need more generalists, and are specialists, in fact, "highly overrated"?看到没有这里就是the complexity of the issue.也就是说我们写的issue covers these points的话,那么我们就会insightful analysis, and in-depth analysis咯.大家好好好想想.
There are several basic positions you could take on this issue: Yes, society needs more generalists and places too high a value on specialists.
No, the opposite is true. Or, it depends on various factors. Or, both /group/s are important in today culture; neither is overvalued.给出了我们可以说的方向,也就是要么肯定,要么否定,要么看具体情况(这个我个人认为中国学生很难说清楚,所以建议大家不要这样写.),要么两者都要(这个虽然很好凑字数,但是我认为文章中的连接很难做到,下面又范文和我的分析.大家看看).Your analysis might draw examples from a particular society or country, from one or more areas of society, or from various situations. It might focus on the role of generalists and specialists in relation to communications, transportation, politics, information, or technology.可以看到他要你句的例子都是很正经的,所以大家要句一些具有普遍性的例子哟Any of these approaches is valid, so long as you use relevant reasons and examples to support your position.
Before you stake out a position, take a few moments to reread the claim. To analyze it, consider questions such as these:
?What are the main differences between specialists and generalists?这点比较难,也是我们喜欢回避的一点,就是通常当我们遇到a和b矛盾的问题(在我们的一般理解中是矛盾的),我们总是不去谈他们间的关系. What are the strong points of each? Do these differences always hold in various professions or situations?
Could there be some specialists, for example, who also need to have very broad knowledge and general abilities to perform their work well?这是上面的延伸,也难想到.
?How do generalists and specialists function in your field?这点也能考虑到What value do you think society places on specialists and generalists? Are specialists overvalued in some situations, and not in others?容易考虑Does society really need more generalists than it has? If so, what needs would they serve?这点很好考虑到Now you can organize your thoughts /into/ two /group/s:
1) reasons and examples to support the claim
2) reasons and examples to support an opposing point of view
可以看到,说理和举例子同样重要.很多同学只是光举例子(特别是对于自己不熟悉的题目) ，这样不是特别好 ，需要改进 ，我也一样 。
If you find one view clearly more persuasive than the other, consider developing an argument from that perspective. As you build your argument, keep in mind the other points, which you could argue against.看到没有,可以反驳自己的假设相反观点 ，是凑字数和增加说服力的好方法.
If both /group/s have compelling points, consider developing a position supporting, not the stated claim, but a more limited or more complex claim.
Then you can use reasons and examples from both sides to justify your position.
In this era of rapid social and technological change leading to increasing life complexity and psychological displacement,说了背景both positive and negative effects among persons in Western society call for a balance in which there are both specialists and generalists.一句话开头一点也不罗嗦,大家学学,别总想着怎么开头,关键是里面有没有货.
Specialists are necessary in order to allow society as a whole to properly and usefully assimilate the masses of new information and knowledge that have come out of research and have been widely disseminated through mass global media. As the head of Pharmacology at my university once said (and I paraphrase):"I can only research what I do because there are so many who have come before me to whom I can turn for basic knowledge. It is only because of each of the narrowly focussed individuals at each step that a full and true understanding of the complexities of life can be had. Each person can only hold enough knowledge to add one small rung to the ladder, but together we can climb to the moon." This illustrates the point that our societies level of knowledge and technology is at a stage in which there simply must be specialists in order for our society to take advantage of the information available to us.很清楚,一个观点+例子(大学里的人说的有普遍性吧)+把例子里的意思集中一下.最后一句话里的must和第一句的necessary摇相互应,说specialist的作用和必要性.不就反映了前面的红色的字里的东东吗.漂亮.
Simply put, without specialists, our society would find itself bogged down in the Sargasso sea of information overload. While it was fine for early physicists to learn and understand the few laws and ideas that existed during their times, now, no one individual can possibly digest and assimilate all of the knowledge in any given area.观点加举例,是对上面那段的延伸.说没有specialist会怎么样,举了physicist的例子,多有学术气息.
On the other hand, Over specialization means narrow focii in which people can lose the larger picture.No one can hope to understand the human body by only inspecting one's own toe-nails. What we learn from a narrow focus may be internally logically coherent but may be irrelevant or fallacious within the framework of a broader perspective. Further, if we inspect only our toe-nails, we may conclude that the whole body is hard and white. Useful conclusions and thus perhaps useful inventions must come by sharing among specialists. Simply throwing out various discovieries means we have a pile of useless discoveries, it is only when one can make with them a mosaic that we can see that they may form a picture.看到没有他是怎么说specialist和generalist间的关系的连贯吧.用,the larger picture, by sharing among specialists, and a mosaic把generalist的定义还有作用引出来了.佩服ing.鞠一躬.
Not only may over-specialization be dangerous in terms of the truth, purity and cohesion of knowledge, but it can also serve to drown moral or universall issues. Generalists and only generalists can see a broad enough picture to realize and introduce to the world the problems of the environment. With specialization, each person focusses on their research and their goals. Thus, industrialization, expansion, and new technologies are driven ahead. Meanwhile no individual can see the wholisitc view of our global existence in which true advancement may mean stifling individual specialists for the greater good of all.举了个环境的例子,又是举例,但是,朋友,人家可不是光举例,例子里可有自己的分析,好好琢磨琢磨先.看到a broad enough picure和wholisitc view是不是很亲切?对了,这里和上面那段不是又摇相呼应了吗?佩服ing.再鞠一躬.
Finally, over-specialization in a people's daily lives and jobs has meant personal and psychological compartmentalization. People are forced /into/ pigeon holes early in life (at least by university) and must conciously attempt to consume external forms of stimuli and information in order not to be lost in their small and isolated universe. Not only does this make for narrowly focussed and generally pooprly-educated individuals, but it guarantees a sense of loss of community, often followed by a feeling of psychological displacement and personal dissatisfaction.这段是说over-specialization对个人精神世界的坏作用,同时你看到loss of community没有,是不是有generalist的影子?再有pigeon holes和small and isolated universe不也就是说没有generalist的话会怎么样吗?
Without generalists, society becomes inward-looking and eventually inefficient. Without a society that recongnizes the impotance of braod-mindedness and fora for sharing generalities, individuals become isolated.
Thus, while our form of society necessitates specialists, generalists are equally important. Specialists drive us forward in a series of thrusts while generalists make sure we are still on the jousting field and know
what the stakes are.很多人不知道结尾怎么写,大家看看这个.第一句和倒数3,4段呼应.第2句和倒数第2段呼应,和我在上段的分析一样的,不要怀疑,就是这样的,好好想想吧.