GRE考试作文分类类别之历史类作文

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 作者:angeikim

  第一类型:关于书写的方式是落后的  ,没有现代记录方式的先进性 ,比如说摄像,数码等方式  。

  7、"The video camera provides such an accurate and convincing record of co






ntemporary life that it as become a more important form of documentation than written records."

  "When we concern ourselves with the study of history, we become storytellers. Because we can never know the past directly but must construct it by interpreting evidence, exploring history is more of a creative enterprise than it is an objective pursuit. All historians are storytellers."

  原因之一是因为储存方式的进步  ,数码保存方式是在传统的模拟信号方式的基础之上的改进  ,并且有诸如保存时间长  ,不易受环境的影响  ,无限制的重复使用,携带方便,便于传播等优点,尤其是比如录像等方式可以提供视觉上,听觉上等多种感官刺激  ,这是前人或者说以往的方式上无法提供的,也无法比拟的.这个也是题目7所持观点的依据之一.但是同时我们不能忽略其易修改性,即容易根据制作人的态度以及目的所容易修改,复制  ,所以一般的电视节目或者科普资料都带有明显的拍摄者的意图,也就是说其在某一方面以及某议程度上的不客观性,带有一定的个人色彩  。而如果谈到这个角度  ,大家就也应该看看第110题,是说当谈到历史的时候,我们就都变成了讲故事的人,既说历史学家都不全是客观的重现历史.类似这样的观点,大家可以参照TIME,也就是时代周刊上的一个ESSAY,题目是: when artists distort history, written by Lance Morrow(time, dec, 23, 1991, p.84).这篇文章是从艺术家扭曲历史的角度来谈的 。大家也可以从由中国友谊出版公司出版的<时代经典用词> 系列的人文篇找到这篇ESSAY.这套书一共五本  ,四本分类用词,一本单词书,如果大家平时不知道怎么样的表达方式,书写方式是美国主流社会所承认以及使用的  ,大家可以参看这本书里面的一些例句  。我个人认为这套书的另外一个比较好的地方就是把在一些领域内比较重要(或者体现社会变迁,或者体现价值观,或者历史方面等)的词汇以及其来由比较详尽的列举出来了 。大家如果平时做GRE写作苦于没有素材以及例子的话  ,不妨看看这套书  。(声明一下,这绝非广告!而在文化或者社会方面大家也可以找到类似的题目  ,也就是书不重要了,我们应该放弃阅读之类的观点  。

  1. position: For

  在支持方面的观点大家可以从新型方式的先进性入手,比如说是可视性,可听性,易查找性,共享性,娱乐性的提高,更容易被大众所接受,可以扩大这些文件的影响.比如一些虚拟图书馆的存在.大家可以谈到一些比较年代久远的书一年或者几年才可以打开一次,这样就限制了传播的范围.

  同样也可以谈到传统的方式的局限性,比如不易保存,容易遗失,影响面相对较小等.例子方面可以谈到图书馆的保存方式,现在都在进行资料的更新.

  2. position: Against

  大家可以着重谈这些方式的主观性的局限,比如很容易受到拍摄者或者制作者的观点的影响,或者是娱乐性减弱了对资料的吸收,例如快餐文化,以及一些文件是无法用先进的方式重现的.

  第二  ,是把个人的得失与历史相联系的一类题目,比如我们做过的36题,和48题, 241题.

  "The greatness of individuals can be decided only by those who live after them, not by their contemporaries."

  "The study of history places too much emphasis on individuals. The most significant events and trends in history were made possible not by the famous few, but by groups of people whose identities have long been forgotten."

  "An individual's greatness cannot be judged objectively by his or her contemporaries; the most objective evaluators of a person's greatness are people who belong to a later time."

  这个部分三个题目都是关于个人以及个人成就的问题  。到底什么样的标准可以用来衡量一个人的成就  ?时间评判一切吗?而在历史的长河里面,个人的作用到底有多少?记得有一个GRE阅读题目是关于48题的方面的,说的是,历(尤其是君主统治时期)记载的更多是精英阶级,而大大忽略了社会的主体:普通人民.这个也可以当作是一个方面来陈述.

  这几个问题,我个人认为,更需要的是辩证地来看,不能只是说哪个好而哪个不好.因为在历,有很多的思想因为其超前性而无法被当代所认同,比如尼采,比如相对论刚提出的时候(印象当中好像是相对论刚开始是被否定的,因没有人可以明白,请大家指正,再比如伽利略,哥白尼,例子很多,大家可以自己例举.

  而同时,又有很多的学者,科学家,哲学家可以被当代人所接受,因为其巨大的对社会的贡献以及影响.比如牛顿,居里夫人,等等,大家可以随便从小学学过的故事里面选几个列出来.

  第三,是历史对现实已经渐渐没有意义了.比如54题  ,

  26"Most people would agree that buildings represent a valuable record of any society's past, but controversy arises when old buildings stand on ground that modern planners feel could be better used for modern purposes. In such situations, modern development should be given precedence over the preservation of historic buildings so that contemporary needs can be served."

  54"History teaches us only one thing: knowing about the past cannot help people to make important decisions today."

  103"The study of history has value only to the extent that it is relevant to our daily lives."

  120"So much is new and complex today that looking back for an understanding of the past provides little guidance for living in the present."

  125"The past is no predictor of the future."

  189"If people disregard the great works of the past, it is because these works no longer answer the needs of the present."

  如果仅仅从数量上来考虑的话  ,这个部分的题目可以不折不扣的被称为重点内容 ,也就是讨论历史与现实社会的关系以及共融性的问题  ,而这个方面也是现在社会的一个比较热点的问题 。到底历史赋予了我们什么  ?教给了我们什么  ?为什么我们总是在重复历的悲剧  ?

  但是实际上历史对我们更多的是借鉴  ,警示  ,以及教育的作用  ,比如现在在一些欧洲国家里面 ,极右势力又开始抬头了  ,但是因为二战给人类带来的严重的灾难性影响使各个国家都比较注意防范这方面的问题  ,例如在二战当中战败国德国 ,他们比较有名的杂志‘明镜‘就总是时不时的审视国内的一些问题  ,谨防类似的事件的再次发生 。

  而每年的广岛纪念日也不断提醒人民核武器的危险性以及其对家庭  ,社会所带来的悲剧性影响  。

  大家在这个部分可以参考我所帖出的关于历史方面的一些资料.在里面比较详尽的列出了历史和现在的社会的关系以及其对现实的影响以及作用.我在这里也就不累述了.

  其中的26题,大家可以参考一篇我与大家分享的文章,题目是: history and architecture.其中的观点是Against方面的.我的观点基本是Against,有For的朋友欢迎跟帖把你的观点,提纲,以及例子列出来.

  第四  ,是说历史的负面作用的  ,比如27题  ,81题.

  27"No one can possibly achieve success in the world by conforming to conventional practices and conventional ways of thinking."

  81"Patriotic reverence for the history of a nation often does more to impede than to encourage progress."

  第五 ,也就是我所列的最后一种就是关于历史的作用的 ,比如221题.

  关于这道题目大家可以参考我所贴出的作文参考资料的历史部分 ,里面很详尽的列举了历史对社会,对个人的作用  ,意义等 。虽然文章比较长,但是值得一读.如果大家有什么好的资料也欢迎帖出来和大家分享.

  221"The chief benefit of the study of history is to break down the illusion that people in one period of time are significantly different from people who lived at any other time in history."

  这个题目的Topic: chief benefit of the study of history,题目里面的观点是历史的主要作用,或者说是学习历史的益处是因为他可以表明我们是与其他时代的人不同的.

  我的立场是不赞同,因为这个观点是比较绝对,片面理解了历史的作用.大家可以从gter.net的一些参考资料上总结出来历史的真正作用,这样也就比较容易的攻克了这个题目.

  总之,作文不是一日而就的,需要平时的积累以及一些扎实的英文功底,希望大家在平时多下功夫,一定可以攻克这个’难题’的.

  在每个专题结束的时候,我或者其他三个版主都会写出总结的,也欢迎把你的观点拿出来跟大家分享讨论,也欢迎把你的作文帖出来让大家修改,评论.我们需要你们的支持,也希望你们从这里得到自己需要的资料以及信息. Gter们,让我们一起努力实现各自的梦想吧!

  这个类别是顺序也是老的ETS版本 ,大家一般都有的 。

  分类人:angeikim

  所以  ,大家要转的时候  ,也请给个面子标上寄托天下的出处和作者  。谢谢 。

  7、"The video camera provides such an accurate and convincing record of contemporary life that it has become a more important form of documentation than written records."

  110"When we concern ourselves with the study of history, we become storytellers. Because we can never know the past directly but must construct it by interpreting evidence, exploring history is more of a creative enterprise than it is an objective pursuit. All historians are storytellers."

  36"The greatness of individuals can be decided only by those who live after them, not by their contemporaries."

  48"The study of history places too much emphasis on individuals. The most significant events and trends in history were made possible not by the famous few, but by groups of people whose identities have long been forgotten."

  241"An individual's greatness cannot be judged objectively by his or her contemporaries; the most objective evaluators of a person's greatness are people who belong to a later time."

  26"Most people would agree that buildings represent a valuable record of any society's past, but controversy arises when old buildings stand on ground that modern planners feel could be better used for modern purposes. In such situations, modern development should be given precedence over the preservation of historic buildings so that contemporary needs can be served."

  54"History teaches us only one thing: knowing about the past cannot help people to make important decisions today."

  103"The study of history has value only to the extent that it is relevant to our daily lives."

  120"So much is new and complex today that looking back for an understanding of the past provides little guidance for living in the present."

  125"The past is no predictor of the future."

  189"If people disregard the great works of the past, it is because these works no longer answer the needs of the present." 27"No one can possibly achieve success in the world by conforming to conventional practices and conventional ways of thinking."

  81"Patriotic reverence for the history of a nation often does more to impede than to encourage progress."

  221"The chief benefit of the study of history is to break down the illusion that people in one period of time are significantly different from people who lived at any other time in history."